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Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

CouncilEurope

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
as amended by Protocol No. 11

Rome, 4.XI.1950

The text of the Convention had been amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 3 (ETS No. 45), which entered into force on 21 September 1970, of Protocol No. 5 (ETS No. 55), which entered into force on 20 December 1971 and of Protocol No. 8 (ETS No. 118), which entered into force on 1 January 1990, and comprised also the text of Protocol No. 2 (ETS No. 44) which, in accordance with Article 5, paragraph 3 thereof, had been an integral part of the Convention since its entry into force on 21 September 1970. All provisions which had been amended or added by these Protocols are replaced by Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155), as from the date of its entry into force on 1 November 1998. As from that date, Protocol No. 9 (ETS No. 140), which entered into force on 1 October 1994, is repealed and Protocol No. 10 (ETS No. 146) has lost its purpose.

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR
Protocol
Protocols: No. 4 | No. 6 | No. 7
No. 12 | No. 13 | No. 14
Français

Non-official translations are available here :
European Court of Human Rights – Basic Texts


The governments signatory hereto, being members of the Council of Europe,

Considering the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948;

Considering that this Declaration aims at securing the universal and effective recognition and observance of the Rights therein declared;

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the achievement of greater unity between its members and that one of the methods by which that aim is to be pursued is the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Reaffirming their profound belief in those fundamental freedoms which are the foundation of justice and peace in the world and are best maintained on the one hand by an effective political democracy and on the other by a common understanding and observance of the human rights upon which they depend;

Being resolved, as the governments of European countries which are like-minded and have a common heritage of political traditions, ideals, freedom and the rule of law, to take the first steps for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights stated in the Universal Declaration,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1 – Obligation to respect human rights 1

The High Contracting Parties shall secure to everyone within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in Section I of this Convention.

Section I – Rights and freedoms 1

Article 2 – Right to life1

  1. Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law.
  2. Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as inflicted in contravention of this article when it results from the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary:
    1. in defence of any person from unlawful violence;
    2. in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;
    3. in action lawfully taken for the purpose of quelling a riot or insurrection.

Article 3 – Prohibition of torture1

No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour1

  1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
  2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
  3. For the purpose of this article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:
    1. any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;
    2. any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;
    3. any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
    4. any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.

Article 5 – Right to liberty and security1

  1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law:
    1. the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;
    2. the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
    3. the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
    4. the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;
    5. the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
    6. the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
  2. Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.
  3. Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.c of this article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.
  4. Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.
  5. Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 6 – Right to a fair trial1

  1. In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.
  2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
  3. Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:
    1. to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;
    2. to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
    3. to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;
    4. to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
    5. to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

Article 7 – No punishment without law1

  1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.
  2. This article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.

Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life1

  1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
  2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
  2. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 10 – Freedom of expression1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
  2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
  2. No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.

Article 12 – Right to marry1

Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 13 – Right to an effective remedy1

Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.

Article 14 – Prohibition of discrimination1

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.

Article 15 – Derogation in time of emergency1

  1. In time of war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation any High Contracting Party may take measures derogating from its obligations under this Convention to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with its other obligations under international law.
  2. No derogation from Article 2, except in respect of deaths resulting from lawful acts of war, or from Articles 3, 4 (paragraph 1) and 7 shall be made under this provision.
  3. Any High Contracting Party availing itself of this right of derogation shall keep the Secretary General of the Council of Europe fully informed of the measures which it has taken and the reasons therefor. It shall also inform the Secretary General of the Council of Europe when such measures have ceased to operate and the provisions of the Convention are again being fully executed.

Article 16 – Restrictions on political activity of aliens1

Nothing in Articles 10, 11 and 14 shall be regarded as preventing the High Contracting Parties from imposing restrictions on the political activity of aliens.

Article 17 – Prohibition of abuse of rights1

Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

Article 18 – Limitation on use of restrictions on rights1

The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.

Section II – European Court of Human Rights2

Article 19 – Establishment of the Court

To ensure the observance of the engagements undertaken by the High Contracting Parties in the Convention and the Protocols thereto, there shall be set up a European Court of Human Rights, hereinafter referred to as “the Court”. It shall function on a permanent basis.

Article 20 – Number of judges

The Court shall consist of a number of judges equal to that of the High Contracting Parties.

Article 21 – Criteria for office

  1. The judges shall be of high moral character and must either possess the qualifications required for appointment to high judicial office or be jurisconsults of recognised competence.
  2. The judges shall sit on the Court in their individual capacity.
  3. During their term of office the judges shall not engage in any activity which is incompatible with their independence, impartiality or with the demands of a full-time office; all questions arising from the application of this paragraph shall be decided by the Court.

Article 22 – Election of judges

  1. The judges shall be elected by the Parliamentary Assembly with respect to each High Contracting Party by a majority of votes cast from a list of three candidates nominated by the High Contracting Party.
  2. The same procedure shall be followed to complete the Court in the event of the accession of new High Contracting Parties and in filling casual vacancies.

Article 23 – Terms of office

  1. The judges shall be elected for a period of six years. They may be re-elected. However, the terms of office of one-half of the judges elected at the first election shall expire at the end of three years.
  2. The judges whose terms of office are to expire at the end of the initial period of three years shall be chosen by lot by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after their election.
  3. In order to ensure that, as far as possible, the terms of office of one-half of the judges are renewed every three years, the Parliamentary Assembly may decide, before proceeding to any subsequent election, that the term or terms of office of one or more judges to be elected shall be for a period other than six years but not more than nine and not less than three years.
  4. In cases where more than one term of office is involved and where the Parliamentary Assembly applies the preceding paragraph, the allocation of the terms of office shall be effected by a drawing of lots by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after the election.
  5. A judge elected to replace a judge whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor’s term.
  6. The terms of office of judges shall expire when they reach the age of 70.
  7. The judges shall hold office until replaced. They shall, however, continue to deal with such cases as they already have under consideration.

Article 24 – Dismissal

No judge may be dismissed from his office unless the other judges decide by a majority of two-thirds that he has ceased to fulfil the required conditions.

Article 25 – Registry and legal secretaries

The Court shall have a registry, the functions and organisation of which shall be laid down in the rules of the Court. The Court shall be assisted by legal secretaries.

Article 26 – Plenary Court

The plenary Court shall:

  1. elect its President and one or two Vice-Presidents for a period of three years; they may be re-elected;
  2. set up Chambers, constituted for a fixed period of time;
  3. elect the Presidents of the Chambers of the Court; they may be re-elected;
  4. adopt the rules of the Court, and
  5. elect the Registrar and one or more Deputy Registrars.

Article 27 – Committees, Chambers and Grand Chamber

  1. To consider cases brought before it, the Court shall sit in committees of three judges, in Chambers of seven judges and in a Grand Chamber of seventeen judges. The Court’s Chambers shall set up committees for a fixed period of time.
  2. There shall sit as an ex officio member of the Chamber and the Grand Chamber the judge elected in respect of the State Party concerned or, if there is none or if he is unable to sit, a person of its choice who shall sit in the capacity of judge.
  3. The Grand Chamber shall also include the President of the Court, the Vice-Presidents, the Presidents of the Chambers and other judges chosen in accordance with the rules of the Court. When a case is referred to the Grand Chamber under Article 43, no judge from the Chamber which rendered the judgment shall sit in the Grand Chamber, with the exception of the President of the Chamber and the judge who sat in respect of the State Party concerned.

Article 28 – Declarations of inadmissibility by committees

A committee may, by a unanimous vote, declare inadmissible or strike out of its list of cases an application submitted under Article 34 where such a decision can be taken without further examination. The decision shall be final.

Article 29 – Decisions by Chambers on admissibility and merits

  1. If no decision is taken under Article 28, a Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of individual applications submitted under Article 34.
  2. A Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of inter-State applications submitted under Article 33.
  3. The decision on admissibility shall be taken separately unless the Court, in exceptional cases, decides otherwise.

Article 30 – Relinquishment of jurisdiction to the Grand Chamber

Where a case pending before a Chamber raises a serious question affecting the interpretation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or where the resolution of a question before the Chamber might have a result inconsistent with a judgment previously delivered by the Court, the Chamber may, at any time before it has rendered its judgment, relinquish jurisdiction in favour of the Grand Chamber, unless one of the parties to the case objects.

Article 31 – Powers of the Grand Chamber

The Grand Chamber shall:

  1. determine applications submitted either under Article 33 or Article 34 when a Chamber has relinquished jurisdiction under Article 30 or when the case has been referred to it under Article 43; and
  2. consider requests for advisory opinions submitted under Article 47.

Article 32 – Jurisdiction of the Court

  1. The jurisdiction of the Court shall extend to all matters concerning the interpretation and application of the Convention and the protocols thereto which are referred to it as provided in Articles 33, 34 and 47.
  2. In the event of dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdiction, the Court shall decide.

Article 33 – Inter-State cases

Any High Contracting Party may refer to the Court any alleged breach of the provisions of the Convention and the protocols thereto by another High Contracting Party.

Article 34 – Individual applications

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR

The Court may receive applications from any person, non-governmental organisation or group of individuals claiming to be the victim of a violation by one of the High Contracting Parties of the rights set forth in the Convention or the protocols thereto. The High Contracting Parties undertake not to hinder in any way the effective exercise of this right.

Article 35 – Admissibility criteria

  1. The Court may only deal with the matter after all domestic remedies have been exhausted, according to the generally recognised rules of international law, and within a period of six months from the date on which the final decision was taken.
  2. The Court shall not deal with any application submitted under Article 34 that:
    1. is anonymous; or
    2. is substantially the same as a matter that has already been examined by the Court or has already been submitted to another procedure of international investigation or settlement and contains no relevant new information.
  3. The Court shall declare inadmissible any individual application submitted under Article 34 which it considers incompatible with the provisions of the Convention or the protocols thereto, manifestly ill-founded, or an abuse of the right of application.
  4. The Court shall reject any application which it considers inadmissible under this Article. It may do so at any stage of the proceedings.

Article 36 – Third party intervention

  1. In all cases before a Chamber or the Grand Chamber, a High Contracting Party one of whose nationals is an applicant shall have the right to submit written comments and to take part in hearings.
  2. The President of the Court may, in the interest of the proper administration of justice, invite any High Contracting Party which is not a party to the proceedings or any person concerned who is not the applicant to submit written comments or take part in hearings.

Article 37 – Striking out applications

  1. The Court may at any stage of the proceedings decide to strike an application out of its list of cases where the circumstances lead to the conclusion that:
    1. the applicant does not intend to pursue his application; or
    2. the matter has been resolved; or
    3. for any other reason established by the Court, it is no longer justified to continue the examination of the application.

    However, the Court shall continue the examination of the application if respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto so requires.

  2. The Court may decide to restore an application to its list of cases if it considers that the circumstances justify such a course.

Article 38 – Examination of the case and friendly settlement proceedings

  1. If the Court declares the application admissible, it shall:
    1. pursue the examination of the case, together with the representatives of the parties, and if need be, undertake an investigation, for the effective conduct of which the States concerned shall furnish all necessary facilities;
    2. place itself at the disposal of the parties concerned with a view to securing a friendly settlement of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Proceedings conducted under paragraph 1.b shall be confidential.

Article 39 – Finding of a friendly settlement

If a friendly settlement is effected, the Court shall strike the case out of its list by means of a decision which shall be confined to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached.

Article 40 – Public hearings and access to documents

  1. Hearings shall be in public unless the Court in exceptional circumstances decides otherwise.
  2. Documents deposited with the Registrar shall be accessible to the public unless the President of the Court decides otherwise.

Article 41 – Just satisfaction

If the Court finds that there has been a violation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the injured party.

Article 42 – Judgments of Chambers

Judgments of Chambers shall become final in accordance with the provisions of Article 44, paragraph 2.

Article 43 – Referral to the Grand Chamber

  1. Within a period of three months from the date of the judgment of the Chamber, any party to the case may, in exceptional cases, request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber.
  2. A panel of five judges of the Grand Chamber shall accept the request if the case raises a serious question affecting the interpretation or application of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or a serious issue of general importance.
  3. If the panel accepts the request, the Grand Chamber shall decide the case by means of a judgment.

Article 44 – Final judgments

  1. The judgment of the Grand Chamber shall be final.
  2. The judgment of a Chamber shall become final:
    1. when the parties declare that they will not request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber; or
    2. three months after the date of the judgment, if reference of the case to the Grand Chamber has not been requested; or
    3. when the panel of the Grand Chamber rejects the request to refer under Article 43.
  3. The final judgment shall be published.

Article 45 – Reasons for judgments and decisions

  1. Reasons shall be given for judgments as well as for decisions declaring applications admissible or inadmissible.
  2. If a judgment does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.

Article 46 – Binding force and execution of judgments

  1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to abide by the final judgment of the Court in any case to which they are parties.
  2. The final judgment of the Court shall be transmitted to the Committee of Ministers, which shall supervise its execution.

Article 47 – Advisory opinions

  1. The Court may, at the request of the Committee of Ministers, give advisory opinions on legal questions concerning the interpretation of the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Such opinions shall not deal with any question relating to the content or scope of the rights or freedoms defined in Section I of the Convention and the protocols thereto, or with any other question which the Court or the Committee of Ministers might have to consider in consequence of any such proceedings as could be instituted in accordance with the Convention.
  3. Decisions of the Committee of Ministers to request an advisory opinion of the Court shall require a majority vote of the representatives entitled to sit on the Committee.

Article 48 – Advisory jurisdiction of the Court

The Court shall decide whether a request for an advisory opinion submitted by the Committee of Ministers is within its competence as defined in Article 47.

Article 49 – Reasons for advisory opinions

  1. Reasons shall be given for advisory opinions of the Court.
  2. If the advisory opinion does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.
  3. Advisory opinions of the Court shall be communicated to the Committee of Ministers.

Article 50 – Expenditure on the Court

The expenditure on the Court shall be borne by the Council of Europe.

Article 51 – Privileges and immunities of judges

The judges shall be entitled, during the exercise of their functions, to the privileges and immunities provided for in Article 40 of the Statute of the Council of Europe and in the agreements made thereunder.

Section III – Miscellaneous provisions1,3

Article 52 – Inquiries by the Secretary General1

On receipt of a request from the Secretary General of the Council of Europe any High Contracting Party shall furnish an explanation of the manner in which its internal law ensures the effective implementation of any of the provisions of the Convention.

Article 53 – Safeguard for existing human rights1

Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as limiting or derogating from any of the human rights and fundamental freedoms which may be ensured under the laws of any High Contracting Party or under any other agreement to which it is a Party.

Article 54 – Powers of the Committee of Ministers1

Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the powers conferred on the Committee of Ministers by the Statute of the Council of Europe.

Article 55 – Exclusion of other means of dispute settlement1

The High Contracting Parties agree that, except by special agreement, they will not avail themselves of treaties, conventions or declarations in force between them for the purpose of submitting, by way of petition, a dispute arising out of the interpretation or application of this Convention to a means of settlement other than those provided for in this Convention.

Article 56 – Territorial application1

  1. 4Any State may at the time of its ratification or at any time thereafter declare by notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that the present Convention shall, subject to paragraph 4 of this Article, extend to all or any of the territories for whose international relations it is responsible.
  2. The Convention shall extend to the territory or territories named in the notification as from the thirtieth day after the receipt of this notification by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  3. The provisions of this Convention shall be applied in such territories with due regard, however, to local requirements.
  4. 4Any State which has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article may at any time thereafter declare on behalf of one or more of the territories to which the declaration relates that it accepts the competence of the Court to receive applications from individuals, non-governmental organisations or groups of individuals as provided by Article 34 of the Convention.

Article 57 – Reservations1

  1. Any State may, when signing this Convention or when depositing its instrument of ratification, make a reservation in respect of any particular provision of the Convention to the extent that any law then in force in its territory is not in conformity with the provision. Reservations of a general character shall not be permitted under this article.
  2. Any reservation made under this article shall contain a brief statement of the law concerned.

Article 58 – Denunciation 1

  1. A High Contracting Party may denounce the present Convention only after the expiry of five years from the date on which it became a party to it and after six months’ notice contained in a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, who shall inform the other High Contracting Parties.
  2. Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the High Contracting Party concerned from its obligations under this Convention in respect of any act which, being capable of constituting a violation of such obligations, may have been performed by it before the date at which the denunciation became effective.
  3. Any High Contracting Party which shall cease to be a member of the Council of Europe shall cease to be a Party to this Convention under the same conditions.
  4. 4The Convention may be denounced in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraphs in respect of any territory to which it has been declared to extend under the terms of Article 56.

Article 59 – Signature and ratification 1

  1. This Convention shall be open to the signature of the members of the Council of Europe. It shall be ratified. Ratifications shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  2. The present Convention shall come into force after the deposit of ten instruments of ratification.
  3. As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the Convention shall come into force at the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.
  4. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify all the members of the Council of Europe of the entry into force of the Convention, the names of the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it, and the deposit of all instruments of ratification which may be effected subsequently.Done at Rome this 4th day of November 1950, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatories.

(1)   Heading added according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(2)   New Section II according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(3)   The articles of this Section are renumbered according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(4)   Text amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).

CouncilEurope

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
as amended by Protocol No. 11

Rome, 4.XI.1950

The text of the Convention had been amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 3 (ETS No. 45), which entered into force on 21 September 1970, of Protocol No. 5 (ETS No. 55), which entered into force on 20 December 1971 and of Protocol No. 8 (ETS No. 118), which entered into force on 1 January 1990, and comprised also the text of Protocol No. 2 (ETS No. 44) which, in accordance with Article 5, paragraph 3 thereof, had been an integral part of the Convention since its entry into force on 21 September 1970. All provisions which had been amended or added by these Protocols are replaced by Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155), as from the date of its entry into force on 1 November 1998. As from that date, Protocol No. 9 (ETS No. 140), which entered into force on 1 October 1994, is repealed and Protocol No. 10 (ETS No. 146) has lost its purpose.

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR
Protocol
Protocols: No. 4 | No. 6 | No. 7
No. 12 | No. 13 | No. 14
Français

Non-official translations are available here :
European Court of Human Rights – Basic Texts


The governments signatory hereto, being members of the Council of Europe,

Considering the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948;

Considering that this Declaration aims at securing the universal and effective recognition and observance of the Rights therein declared;

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the achievement of greater unity between its members and that one of the methods by which that aim is to be pursued is the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Reaffirming their profound belief in those fundamental freedoms which are the foundation of justice and peace in the world and are best maintained on the one hand by an effective political democracy and on the other by a common understanding and observance of the human rights upon which they depend;

Being resolved, as the governments of European countries which are like-minded and have a common heritage of political traditions, ideals, freedom and the rule of law, to take the first steps for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights stated in the Universal Declaration,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1 – Obligation to respect human rights 1

The High Contracting Parties shall secure to everyone within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in Section I of this Convention.

Section I – Rights and freedoms 1

Article 2 – Right to life1

  1. Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law.
  2. Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as inflicted in contravention of this article when it results from the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary:
    1. in defence of any person from unlawful violence;
    2. in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;
    3. in action lawfully taken for the purpose of quelling a riot or insurrection.

Article 3 – Prohibition of torture1

No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour1

  1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
  2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
  3. For the purpose of this article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:
    1. any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;
    2. any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;
    3. any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
    4. any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.

Article 5 – Right to liberty and security1

  1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law:
    1. the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;
    2. the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
    3. the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
    4. the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;
    5. the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
    6. the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
  2. Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.
  3. Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.c of this article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.
  4. Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.
  5. Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 6 – Right to a fair trial1

  1. In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.
  2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
  3. Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:
    1. to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;
    2. to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
    3. to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;
    4. to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
    5. to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

Article 7 – No punishment without law1

  1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.
  2. This article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.

Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life1

  1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
  2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
  2. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 10 – Freedom of expression1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
  2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
  2. No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.

Article 12 – Right to marry1

Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 13 – Right to an effective remedy1

Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.

Article 14 – Prohibition of discrimination1

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.

Article 15 – Derogation in time of emergency1

  1. In time of war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation any High Contracting Party may take measures derogating from its obligations under this Convention to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with its other obligations under international law.
  2. No derogation from Article 2, except in respect of deaths resulting from lawful acts of war, or from Articles 3, 4 (paragraph 1) and 7 shall be made under this provision.
  3. Any High Contracting Party availing itself of this right of derogation shall keep the Secretary General of the Council of Europe fully informed of the measures which it has taken and the reasons therefor. It shall also inform the Secretary General of the Council of Europe when such measures have ceased to operate and the provisions of the Convention are again being fully executed.

Article 16 – Restrictions on political activity of aliens1

Nothing in Articles 10, 11 and 14 shall be regarded as preventing the High Contracting Parties from imposing restrictions on the political activity of aliens.

Article 17 – Prohibition of abuse of rights1

Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

Article 18 – Limitation on use of restrictions on rights1

The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.

Section II – European Court of Human Rights2

Article 19 – Establishment of the Court

To ensure the observance of the engagements undertaken by the High Contracting Parties in the Convention and the Protocols thereto, there shall be set up a European Court of Human Rights, hereinafter referred to as “the Court”. It shall function on a permanent basis.

Article 20 – Number of judges

The Court shall consist of a number of judges equal to that of the High Contracting Parties.

Article 21 – Criteria for office

  1. The judges shall be of high moral character and must either possess the qualifications required for appointment to high judicial office or be jurisconsults of recognised competence.
  2. The judges shall sit on the Court in their individual capacity.
  3. During their term of office the judges shall not engage in any activity which is incompatible with their independence, impartiality or with the demands of a full-time office; all questions arising from the application of this paragraph shall be decided by the Court.

Article 22 – Election of judges

  1. The judges shall be elected by the Parliamentary Assembly with respect to each High Contracting Party by a majority of votes cast from a list of three candidates nominated by the High Contracting Party.
  2. The same procedure shall be followed to complete the Court in the event of the accession of new High Contracting Parties and in filling casual vacancies.

Article 23 – Terms of office

  1. The judges shall be elected for a period of six years. They may be re-elected. However, the terms of office of one-half of the judges elected at the first election shall expire at the end of three years.
  2. The judges whose terms of office are to expire at the end of the initial period of three years shall be chosen by lot by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after their election.
  3. In order to ensure that, as far as possible, the terms of office of one-half of the judges are renewed every three years, the Parliamentary Assembly may decide, before proceeding to any subsequent election, that the term or terms of office of one or more judges to be elected shall be for a period other than six years but not more than nine and not less than three years.
  4. In cases where more than one term of office is involved and where the Parliamentary Assembly applies the preceding paragraph, the allocation of the terms of office shall be effected by a drawing of lots by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after the election.
  5. A judge elected to replace a judge whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor’s term.
  6. The terms of office of judges shall expire when they reach the age of 70.
  7. The judges shall hold office until replaced. They shall, however, continue to deal with such cases as they already have under consideration.

Article 24 – Dismissal

No judge may be dismissed from his office unless the other judges decide by a majority of two-thirds that he has ceased to fulfil the required conditions.

Article 25 – Registry and legal secretaries

The Court shall have a registry, the functions and organisation of which shall be laid down in the rules of the Court. The Court shall be assisted by legal secretaries.

Article 26 – Plenary Court

The plenary Court shall:

  1. elect its President and one or two Vice-Presidents for a period of three years; they may be re-elected;
  2. set up Chambers, constituted for a fixed period of time;
  3. elect the Presidents of the Chambers of the Court; they may be re-elected;
  4. adopt the rules of the Court, and
  5. elect the Registrar and one or more Deputy Registrars.

Article 27 – Committees, Chambers and Grand Chamber

  1. To consider cases brought before it, the Court shall sit in committees of three judges, in Chambers of seven judges and in a Grand Chamber of seventeen judges. The Court’s Chambers shall set up committees for a fixed period of time.
  2. There shall sit as an ex officio member of the Chamber and the Grand Chamber the judge elected in respect of the State Party concerned or, if there is none or if he is unable to sit, a person of its choice who shall sit in the capacity of judge.
  3. The Grand Chamber shall also include the President of the Court, the Vice-Presidents, the Presidents of the Chambers and other judges chosen in accordance with the rules of the Court. When a case is referred to the Grand Chamber under Article 43, no judge from the Chamber which rendered the judgment shall sit in the Grand Chamber, with the exception of the President of the Chamber and the judge who sat in respect of the State Party concerned.

Article 28 – Declarations of inadmissibility by committees

A committee may, by a unanimous vote, declare inadmissible or strike out of its list of cases an application submitted under Article 34 where such a decision can be taken without further examination. The decision shall be final.

Article 29 – Decisions by Chambers on admissibility and merits

  1. If no decision is taken under Article 28, a Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of individual applications submitted under Article 34.
  2. A Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of inter-State applications submitted under Article 33.
  3. The decision on admissibility shall be taken separately unless the Court, in exceptional cases, decides otherwise.

Article 30 – Relinquishment of jurisdiction to the Grand Chamber

Where a case pending before a Chamber raises a serious question affecting the interpretation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or where the resolution of a question before the Chamber might have a result inconsistent with a judgment previously delivered by the Court, the Chamber may, at any time before it has rendered its judgment, relinquish jurisdiction in favour of the Grand Chamber, unless one of the parties to the case objects.

Article 31 – Powers of the Grand Chamber

The Grand Chamber shall:

  1. determine applications submitted either under Article 33 or Article 34 when a Chamber has relinquished jurisdiction under Article 30 or when the case has been referred to it under Article 43; and
  2. consider requests for advisory opinions submitted under Article 47.

Article 32 – Jurisdiction of the Court

  1. The jurisdiction of the Court shall extend to all matters concerning the interpretation and application of the Convention and the protocols thereto which are referred to it as provided in Articles 33, 34 and 47.
  2. In the event of dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdiction, the Court shall decide.

Article 33 – Inter-State cases

Any High Contracting Party may refer to the Court any alleged breach of the provisions of the Convention and the protocols thereto by another High Contracting Party.

Article 34 – Individual applications

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR

The Court may receive applications from any person, non-governmental organisation or group of individuals claiming to be the victim of a violation by one of the High Contracting Parties of the rights set forth in the Convention or the protocols thereto. The High Contracting Parties undertake not to hinder in any way the effective exercise of this right.

Article 35 – Admissibility criteria

  1. The Court may only deal with the matter after all domestic remedies have been exhausted, according to the generally recognised rules of international law, and within a period of six months from the date on which the final decision was taken.
  2. The Court shall not deal with any application submitted under Article 34 that:
    1. is anonymous; or
    2. is substantially the same as a matter that has already been examined by the Court or has already been submitted to another procedure of international investigation or settlement and contains no relevant new information.
  3. The Court shall declare inadmissible any individual application submitted under Article 34 which it considers incompatible with the provisions of the Convention or the protocols thereto, manifestly ill-founded, or an abuse of the right of application.
  4. The Court shall reject any application which it considers inadmissible under this Article. It may do so at any stage of the proceedings.

Article 36 – Third party intervention

  1. In all cases before a Chamber or the Grand Chamber, a High Contracting Party one of whose nationals is an applicant shall have the right to submit written comments and to take part in hearings.
  2. The President of the Court may, in the interest of the proper administration of justice, invite any High Contracting Party which is not a party to the proceedings or any person concerned who is not the applicant to submit written comments or take part in hearings.

Article 37 – Striking out applications

  1. The Court may at any stage of the proceedings decide to strike an application out of its list of cases where the circumstances lead to the conclusion that:
    1. the applicant does not intend to pursue his application; or
    2. the matter has been resolved; or
    3. for any other reason established by the Court, it is no longer justified to continue the examination of the application.

    However, the Court shall continue the examination of the application if respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto so requires.

  2. The Court may decide to restore an application to its list of cases if it considers that the circumstances justify such a course.

Article 38 – Examination of the case and friendly settlement proceedings

  1. If the Court declares the application admissible, it shall:
    1. pursue the examination of the case, together with the representatives of the parties, and if need be, undertake an investigation, for the effective conduct of which the States concerned shall furnish all necessary facilities;
    2. place itself at the disposal of the parties concerned with a view to securing a friendly settlement of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Proceedings conducted under paragraph 1.b shall be confidential.

Article 39 – Finding of a friendly settlement

If a friendly settlement is effected, the Court shall strike the case out of its list by means of a decision which shall be confined to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached.

Article 40 – Public hearings and access to documents

  1. Hearings shall be in public unless the Court in exceptional circumstances decides otherwise.
  2. Documents deposited with the Registrar shall be accessible to the public unless the President of the Court decides otherwise.

Article 41 – Just satisfaction

If the Court finds that there has been a violation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the injured party.

Article 42 – Judgments of Chambers

Judgments of Chambers shall become final in accordance with the provisions of Article 44, paragraph 2.

Article 43 – Referral to the Grand Chamber

  1. Within a period of three months from the date of the judgment of the Chamber, any party to the case may, in exceptional cases, request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber.
  2. A panel of five judges of the Grand Chamber shall accept the request if the case raises a serious question affecting the interpretation or application of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or a serious issue of general importance.
  3. If the panel accepts the request, the Grand Chamber shall decide the case by means of a judgment.

Article 44 – Final judgments

  1. The judgment of the Grand Chamber shall be final.
  2. The judgment of a Chamber shall become final:
    1. when the parties declare that they will not request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber; or
    2. three months after the date of the judgment, if reference of the case to the Grand Chamber has not been requested; or
    3. when the panel of the Grand Chamber rejects the request to refer under Article 43.
  3. The final judgment shall be published.

Article 45 – Reasons for judgments and decisions

  1. Reasons shall be given for judgments as well as for decisions declaring applications admissible or inadmissible.
  2. If a judgment does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.

Article 46 – Binding force and execution of judgments

  1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to abide by the final judgment of the Court in any case to which they are parties.
  2. The final judgment of the Court shall be transmitted to the Committee of Ministers, which shall supervise its execution.

Article 47 – Advisory opinions

  1. The Court may, at the request of the Committee of Ministers, give advisory opinions on legal questions concerning the interpretation of the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Such opinions shall not deal with any question relating to the content or scope of the rights or freedoms defined in Section I of the Convention and the protocols thereto, or with any other question which the Court or the Committee of Ministers might have to consider in consequence of any such proceedings as could be instituted in accordance with the Convention.
  3. Decisions of the Committee of Ministers to request an advisory opinion of the Court shall require a majority vote of the representatives entitled to sit on the Committee.

Article 48 – Advisory jurisdiction of the Court

The Court shall decide whether a request for an advisory opinion submitted by the Committee of Ministers is within its competence as defined in Article 47.

Article 49 – Reasons for advisory opinions

  1. Reasons shall be given for advisory opinions of the Court.
  2. If the advisory opinion does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.
  3. Advisory opinions of the Court shall be communicated to the Committee of Ministers.

Article 50 – Expenditure on the Court

The expenditure on the Court shall be borne by the Council of Europe.

Article 51 – Privileges and immunities of judges

The judges shall be entitled, during the exercise of their functions, to the privileges and immunities provided for in Article 40 of the Statute of the Council of Europe and in the agreements made thereunder.

Section III – Miscellaneous provisions1,3

Article 52 – Inquiries by the Secretary General1

On receipt of a request from the Secretary General of the Council of Europe any High Contracting Party shall furnish an explanation of the manner in which its internal law ensures the effective implementation of any of the provisions of the Convention.

Article 53 – Safeguard for existing human rights1

Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as limiting or derogating from any of the human rights and fundamental freedoms which may be ensured under the laws of any High Contracting Party or under any other agreement to which it is a Party.

Article 54 – Powers of the Committee of Ministers1

Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the powers conferred on the Committee of Ministers by the Statute of the Council of Europe.

Article 55 – Exclusion of other means of dispute settlement1

The High Contracting Parties agree that, except by special agreement, they will not avail themselves of treaties, conventions or declarations in force between them for the purpose of submitting, by way of petition, a dispute arising out of the interpretation or application of this Convention to a means of settlement other than those provided for in this Convention.

Article 56 – Territorial application1

  1. 4Any State may at the time of its ratification or at any time thereafter declare by notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that the present Convention shall, subject to paragraph 4 of this Article, extend to all or any of the territories for whose international relations it is responsible.
  2. The Convention shall extend to the territory or territories named in the notification as from the thirtieth day after the receipt of this notification by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  3. The provisions of this Convention shall be applied in such territories with due regard, however, to local requirements.
  4. 4Any State which has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article may at any time thereafter declare on behalf of one or more of the territories to which the declaration relates that it accepts the competence of the Court to receive applications from individuals, non-governmental organisations or groups of individuals as provided by Article 34 of the Convention.

Article 57 – Reservations1

  1. Any State may, when signing this Convention or when depositing its instrument of ratification, make a reservation in respect of any particular provision of the Convention to the extent that any law then in force in its territory is not in conformity with the provision. Reservations of a general character shall not be permitted under this article.
  2. Any reservation made under this article shall contain a brief statement of the law concerned.

Article 58 – Denunciation 1

  1. A High Contracting Party may denounce the present Convention only after the expiry of five years from the date on which it became a party to it and after six months’ notice contained in a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, who shall inform the other High Contracting Parties.
  2. Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the High Contracting Party concerned from its obligations under this Convention in respect of any act which, being capable of constituting a violation of such obligations, may have been performed by it before the date at which the denunciation became effective.
  3. Any High Contracting Party which shall cease to be a member of the Council of Europe shall cease to be a Party to this Convention under the same conditions.
  4. 4The Convention may be denounced in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraphs in respect of any territory to which it has been declared to extend under the terms of Article 56.

Article 59 – Signature and ratification 1

  1. This Convention shall be open to the signature of the members of the Council of Europe. It shall be ratified. Ratifications shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  2. The present Convention shall come into force after the deposit of ten instruments of ratification.
  3. As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the Convention shall come into force at the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.
  4. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify all the members of the Council of Europe of the entry into force of the Convention, the names of the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it, and the deposit of all instruments of ratification which may be effected subsequently.Done at Rome this 4th day of November 1950, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatories.

(1)   Heading added according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(2)   New Section II according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(3)   The articles of this Section are renumbered according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(4)   Text amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).

CouncilEurope

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
as amended by Protocol No. 11

Rome, 4.XI.1950

The text of the Convention had been amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 3 (ETS No. 45), which entered into force on 21 September 1970, of Protocol No. 5 (ETS No. 55), which entered into force on 20 December 1971 and of Protocol No. 8 (ETS No. 118), which entered into force on 1 January 1990, and comprised also the text of Protocol No. 2 (ETS No. 44) which, in accordance with Article 5, paragraph 3 thereof, had been an integral part of the Convention since its entry into force on 21 September 1970. All provisions which had been amended or added by these Protocols are replaced by Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155), as from the date of its entry into force on 1 November 1998. As from that date, Protocol No. 9 (ETS No. 140), which entered into force on 1 October 1994, is repealed and Protocol No. 10 (ETS No. 146) has lost its purpose.

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR
Protocol
Protocols: No. 4 | No. 6 | No. 7
No. 12 | No. 13 | No. 14
Français

Non-official translations are available here :
European Court of Human Rights – Basic Texts


The governments signatory hereto, being members of the Council of Europe,

Considering the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948;

Considering that this Declaration aims at securing the universal and effective recognition and observance of the Rights therein declared;

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the achievement of greater unity between its members and that one of the methods by which that aim is to be pursued is the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Reaffirming their profound belief in those fundamental freedoms which are the foundation of justice and peace in the world and are best maintained on the one hand by an effective political democracy and on the other by a common understanding and observance of the human rights upon which they depend;

Being resolved, as the governments of European countries which are like-minded and have a common heritage of political traditions, ideals, freedom and the rule of law, to take the first steps for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights stated in the Universal Declaration,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1 – Obligation to respect human rights 1

The High Contracting Parties shall secure to everyone within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in Section I of this Convention.

Section I – Rights and freedoms 1

Article 2 – Right to life1

  1. Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law.
  2. Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as inflicted in contravention of this article when it results from the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary:
    1. in defence of any person from unlawful violence;
    2. in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;
    3. in action lawfully taken for the purpose of quelling a riot or insurrection.

Article 3 – Prohibition of torture1

No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour1

  1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
  2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
  3. For the purpose of this article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:
    1. any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;
    2. any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;
    3. any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
    4. any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.

Article 5 – Right to liberty and security1

  1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law:
    1. the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;
    2. the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
    3. the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
    4. the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;
    5. the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
    6. the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
  2. Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.
  3. Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.c of this article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.
  4. Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.
  5. Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 6 – Right to a fair trial1

  1. In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.
  2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
  3. Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:
    1. to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;
    2. to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
    3. to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;
    4. to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
    5. to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

Article 7 – No punishment without law1

  1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.
  2. This article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.

Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life1

  1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
  2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
  2. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 10 – Freedom of expression1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
  2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association1

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
  2. No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.

Article 12 – Right to marry1

Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 13 – Right to an effective remedy1

Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.

Article 14 – Prohibition of discrimination1

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.

Article 15 – Derogation in time of emergency1

  1. In time of war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation any High Contracting Party may take measures derogating from its obligations under this Convention to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with its other obligations under international law.
  2. No derogation from Article 2, except in respect of deaths resulting from lawful acts of war, or from Articles 3, 4 (paragraph 1) and 7 shall be made under this provision.
  3. Any High Contracting Party availing itself of this right of derogation shall keep the Secretary General of the Council of Europe fully informed of the measures which it has taken and the reasons therefor. It shall also inform the Secretary General of the Council of Europe when such measures have ceased to operate and the provisions of the Convention are again being fully executed.

Article 16 – Restrictions on political activity of aliens1

Nothing in Articles 10, 11 and 14 shall be regarded as preventing the High Contracting Parties from imposing restrictions on the political activity of aliens.

Article 17 – Prohibition of abuse of rights1

Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

Article 18 – Limitation on use of restrictions on rights1

The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.

Section II – European Court of Human Rights2

Article 19 – Establishment of the Court

To ensure the observance of the engagements undertaken by the High Contracting Parties in the Convention and the Protocols thereto, there shall be set up a European Court of Human Rights, hereinafter referred to as “the Court”. It shall function on a permanent basis.

Article 20 – Number of judges

The Court shall consist of a number of judges equal to that of the High Contracting Parties.

Article 21 – Criteria for office

  1. The judges shall be of high moral character and must either possess the qualifications required for appointment to high judicial office or be jurisconsults of recognised competence.
  2. The judges shall sit on the Court in their individual capacity.
  3. During their term of office the judges shall not engage in any activity which is incompatible with their independence, impartiality or with the demands of a full-time office; all questions arising from the application of this paragraph shall be decided by the Court.

Article 22 – Election of judges

  1. The judges shall be elected by the Parliamentary Assembly with respect to each High Contracting Party by a majority of votes cast from a list of three candidates nominated by the High Contracting Party.
  2. The same procedure shall be followed to complete the Court in the event of the accession of new High Contracting Parties and in filling casual vacancies.

Article 23 – Terms of office

  1. The judges shall be elected for a period of six years. They may be re-elected. However, the terms of office of one-half of the judges elected at the first election shall expire at the end of three years.
  2. The judges whose terms of office are to expire at the end of the initial period of three years shall be chosen by lot by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after their election.
  3. In order to ensure that, as far as possible, the terms of office of one-half of the judges are renewed every three years, the Parliamentary Assembly may decide, before proceeding to any subsequent election, that the term or terms of office of one or more judges to be elected shall be for a period other than six years but not more than nine and not less than three years.
  4. In cases where more than one term of office is involved and where the Parliamentary Assembly applies the preceding paragraph, the allocation of the terms of office shall be effected by a drawing of lots by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after the election.
  5. A judge elected to replace a judge whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor’s term.
  6. The terms of office of judges shall expire when they reach the age of 70.
  7. The judges shall hold office until replaced. They shall, however, continue to deal with such cases as they already have under consideration.

Article 24 – Dismissal

No judge may be dismissed from his office unless the other judges decide by a majority of two-thirds that he has ceased to fulfil the required conditions.

Article 25 – Registry and legal secretaries

The Court shall have a registry, the functions and organisation of which shall be laid down in the rules of the Court. The Court shall be assisted by legal secretaries.

Article 26 – Plenary Court

The plenary Court shall:

  1. elect its President and one or two Vice-Presidents for a period of three years; they may be re-elected;
  2. set up Chambers, constituted for a fixed period of time;
  3. elect the Presidents of the Chambers of the Court; they may be re-elected;
  4. adopt the rules of the Court, and
  5. elect the Registrar and one or more Deputy Registrars.

Article 27 – Committees, Chambers and Grand Chamber

  1. To consider cases brought before it, the Court shall sit in committees of three judges, in Chambers of seven judges and in a Grand Chamber of seventeen judges. The Court’s Chambers shall set up committees for a fixed period of time.
  2. There shall sit as an ex officio member of the Chamber and the Grand Chamber the judge elected in respect of the State Party concerned or, if there is none or if he is unable to sit, a person of its choice who shall sit in the capacity of judge.
  3. The Grand Chamber shall also include the President of the Court, the Vice-Presidents, the Presidents of the Chambers and other judges chosen in accordance with the rules of the Court. When a case is referred to the Grand Chamber under Article 43, no judge from the Chamber which rendered the judgment shall sit in the Grand Chamber, with the exception of the President of the Chamber and the judge who sat in respect of the State Party concerned.

Article 28 – Declarations of inadmissibility by committees

A committee may, by a unanimous vote, declare inadmissible or strike out of its list of cases an application submitted under Article 34 where such a decision can be taken without further examination. The decision shall be final.

Article 29 – Decisions by Chambers on admissibility and merits

  1. If no decision is taken under Article 28, a Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of individual applications submitted under Article 34.
  2. A Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and merits of inter-State applications submitted under Article 33.
  3. The decision on admissibility shall be taken separately unless the Court, in exceptional cases, decides otherwise.

Article 30 – Relinquishment of jurisdiction to the Grand Chamber

Where a case pending before a Chamber raises a serious question affecting the interpretation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or where the resolution of a question before the Chamber might have a result inconsistent with a judgment previously delivered by the Court, the Chamber may, at any time before it has rendered its judgment, relinquish jurisdiction in favour of the Grand Chamber, unless one of the parties to the case objects.

Article 31 – Powers of the Grand Chamber

The Grand Chamber shall:

  1. determine applications submitted either under Article 33 or Article 34 when a Chamber has relinquished jurisdiction under Article 30 or when the case has been referred to it under Article 43; and
  2. consider requests for advisory opinions submitted under Article 47.

Article 32 – Jurisdiction of the Court

  1. The jurisdiction of the Court shall extend to all matters concerning the interpretation and application of the Convention and the protocols thereto which are referred to it as provided in Articles 33, 34 and 47.
  2. In the event of dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdiction, the Court shall decide.

Article 33 – Inter-State cases

Any High Contracting Party may refer to the Court any alleged breach of the provisions of the Convention and the protocols thereto by another High Contracting Party.

Article 34 – Individual applications

Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR

The Court may receive applications from any person, non-governmental organisation or group of individuals claiming to be the victim of a violation by one of the High Contracting Parties of the rights set forth in the Convention or the protocols thereto. The High Contracting Parties undertake not to hinder in any way the effective exercise of this right.

Article 35 – Admissibility criteria

  1. The Court may only deal with the matter after all domestic remedies have been exhausted, according to the generally recognised rules of international law, and within a period of six months from the date on which the final decision was taken.
  2. The Court shall not deal with any application submitted under Article 34 that:
    1. is anonymous; or
    2. is substantially the same as a matter that has already been examined by the Court or has already been submitted to another procedure of international investigation or settlement and contains no relevant new information.
  3. The Court shall declare inadmissible any individual application submitted under Article 34 which it considers incompatible with the provisions of the Convention or the protocols thereto, manifestly ill-founded, or an abuse of the right of application.
  4. The Court shall reject any application which it considers inadmissible under this Article. It may do so at any stage of the proceedings.

Article 36 – Third party intervention

  1. In all cases before a Chamber or the Grand Chamber, a High Contracting Party one of whose nationals is an applicant shall have the right to submit written comments and to take part in hearings.
  2. The President of the Court may, in the interest of the proper administration of justice, invite any High Contracting Party which is not a party to the proceedings or any person concerned who is not the applicant to submit written comments or take part in hearings.

Article 37 – Striking out applications

  1. The Court may at any stage of the proceedings decide to strike an application out of its list of cases where the circumstances lead to the conclusion that:
    1. the applicant does not intend to pursue his application; or
    2. the matter has been resolved; or
    3. for any other reason established by the Court, it is no longer justified to continue the examination of the application.

    However, the Court shall continue the examination of the application if respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto so requires.

  2. The Court may decide to restore an application to its list of cases if it considers that the circumstances justify such a course.

Article 38 – Examination of the case and friendly settlement proceedings

  1. If the Court declares the application admissible, it shall:
    1. pursue the examination of the case, together with the representatives of the parties, and if need be, undertake an investigation, for the effective conduct of which the States concerned shall furnish all necessary facilities;
    2. place itself at the disposal of the parties concerned with a view to securing a friendly settlement of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights as defined in the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Proceedings conducted under paragraph 1.b shall be confidential.

Article 39 – Finding of a friendly settlement

If a friendly settlement is effected, the Court shall strike the case out of its list by means of a decision which shall be confined to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached.

Article 40 – Public hearings and access to documents

  1. Hearings shall be in public unless the Court in exceptional circumstances decides otherwise.
  2. Documents deposited with the Registrar shall be accessible to the public unless the President of the Court decides otherwise.

Article 41 – Just satisfaction

If the Court finds that there has been a violation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the injured party.

Article 42 – Judgments of Chambers

Judgments of Chambers shall become final in accordance with the provisions of Article 44, paragraph 2.

Article 43 – Referral to the Grand Chamber

  1. Within a period of three months from the date of the judgment of the Chamber, any party to the case may, in exceptional cases, request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber.
  2. A panel of five judges of the Grand Chamber shall accept the request if the case raises a serious question affecting the interpretation or application of the Convention or the protocols thereto, or a serious issue of general importance.
  3. If the panel accepts the request, the Grand Chamber shall decide the case by means of a judgment.

Article 44 – Final judgments

  1. The judgment of the Grand Chamber shall be final.
  2. The judgment of a Chamber shall become final:
    1. when the parties declare that they will not request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber; or
    2. three months after the date of the judgment, if reference of the case to the Grand Chamber has not been requested; or
    3. when the panel of the Grand Chamber rejects the request to refer under Article 43.
  3. The final judgment shall be published.

Article 45 – Reasons for judgments and decisions

  1. Reasons shall be given for judgments as well as for decisions declaring applications admissible or inadmissible.
  2. If a judgment does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.

Article 46 – Binding force and execution of judgments

  1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to abide by the final judgment of the Court in any case to which they are parties.
  2. The final judgment of the Court shall be transmitted to the Committee of Ministers, which shall supervise its execution.

Article 47 – Advisory opinions

  1. The Court may, at the request of the Committee of Ministers, give advisory opinions on legal questions concerning the interpretation of the Convention and the protocols thereto.
  2. Such opinions shall not deal with any question relating to the content or scope of the rights or freedoms defined in Section I of the Convention and the protocols thereto, or with any other question which the Court or the Committee of Ministers might have to consider in consequence of any such proceedings as could be instituted in accordance with the Convention.
  3. Decisions of the Committee of Ministers to request an advisory opinion of the Court shall require a majority vote of the representatives entitled to sit on the Committee.

Article 48 – Advisory jurisdiction of the Court

The Court shall decide whether a request for an advisory opinion submitted by the Committee of Ministers is within its competence as defined in Article 47.

Article 49 – Reasons for advisory opinions

  1. Reasons shall be given for advisory opinions of the Court.
  2. If the advisory opinion does not represent, in whole or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.
  3. Advisory opinions of the Court shall be communicated to the Committee of Ministers.

Article 50 – Expenditure on the Court

The expenditure on the Court shall be borne by the Council of Europe.

Article 51 – Privileges and immunities of judges

The judges shall be entitled, during the exercise of their functions, to the privileges and immunities provided for in Article 40 of the Statute of the Council of Europe and in the agreements made thereunder.

Section III – Miscellaneous provisions1,3

Article 52 – Inquiries by the Secretary General1

On receipt of a request from the Secretary General of the Council of Europe any High Contracting Party shall furnish an explanation of the manner in which its internal law ensures the effective implementation of any of the provisions of the Convention.

Article 53 – Safeguard for existing human rights1

Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as limiting or derogating from any of the human rights and fundamental freedoms which may be ensured under the laws of any High Contracting Party or under any other agreement to which it is a Party.

Article 54 – Powers of the Committee of Ministers1

Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the powers conferred on the Committee of Ministers by the Statute of the Council of Europe.

Article 55 – Exclusion of other means of dispute settlement1

The High Contracting Parties agree that, except by special agreement, they will not avail themselves of treaties, conventions or declarations in force between them for the purpose of submitting, by way of petition, a dispute arising out of the interpretation or application of this Convention to a means of settlement other than those provided for in this Convention.

Article 56 – Territorial application1

  1. 4Any State may at the time of its ratification or at any time thereafter declare by notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that the present Convention shall, subject to paragraph 4 of this Article, extend to all or any of the territories for whose international relations it is responsible.
  2. The Convention shall extend to the territory or territories named in the notification as from the thirtieth day after the receipt of this notification by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  3. The provisions of this Convention shall be applied in such territories with due regard, however, to local requirements.
  4. 4Any State which has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article may at any time thereafter declare on behalf of one or more of the territories to which the declaration relates that it accepts the competence of the Court to receive applications from individuals, non-governmental organisations or groups of individuals as provided by Article 34 of the Convention.

Article 57 – Reservations1

  1. Any State may, when signing this Convention or when depositing its instrument of ratification, make a reservation in respect of any particular provision of the Convention to the extent that any law then in force in its territory is not in conformity with the provision. Reservations of a general character shall not be permitted under this article.
  2. Any reservation made under this article shall contain a brief statement of the law concerned.

Article 58 – Denunciation 1

  1. A High Contracting Party may denounce the present Convention only after the expiry of five years from the date on which it became a party to it and after six months’ notice contained in a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, who shall inform the other High Contracting Parties.
  2. Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the High Contracting Party concerned from its obligations under this Convention in respect of any act which, being capable of constituting a violation of such obligations, may have been performed by it before the date at which the denunciation became effective.
  3. Any High Contracting Party which shall cease to be a member of the Council of Europe shall cease to be a Party to this Convention under the same conditions.
  4. 4The Convention may be denounced in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraphs in respect of any territory to which it has been declared to extend under the terms of Article 56.

Article 59 – Signature and ratification 1

  1. This Convention shall be open to the signature of the members of the Council of Europe. It shall be ratified. Ratifications shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  2. The present Convention shall come into force after the deposit of ten instruments of ratification.
  3. As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the Convention shall come into force at the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.
  4. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify all the members of the Council of Europe of the entry into force of the Convention, the names of the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it, and the deposit of all instruments of ratification which may be effected subsequently.Done at Rome this 4th day of November 1950, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatories.

(1)   Heading added according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(2)   New Section II according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(3)   The articles of this Section are renumbered according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(4)   Text amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).

Adil Yargılanma Hakkı ve Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi

Yorumlara Git

http://www.rightsagenda.org/main.php?id=61 adresinden alıntıdır.

Av. Güney Dinç, bu çalışma nedeniyle herhangi bir ekonomik destek almadığı gibi, kendisini telif ücreti de ödenmemiştir.

I – YARGILAMA ADALETİ VE SAVUNMA SEçENEKLERİ :
Avrupa İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi’nin 6. maddesinde yer alan adilyargılanma güvenceleri, uyuşmazlıkların türlerine göre farklılıklargöstermektedir. Birinci bentte hukuk ve ceza davaları birlikte elealınmıştır. “Medeni hak ve yükümlülüklerle ilgili uyuşmazlıklar”tanımı içinde değerlendirilen hukuk davalarında, davacı ya da davalıkonumunda bulunmalarına bakılmaksızın uyuşmazlığın yanları, öngörülenyargılama güvencelerinden yararlandırılmaktadırlar. YAZININ TAMAMI İÇİN TIKLAYINIZ

İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi

 

 

25 Nisan 2009 Cumartesi

 

Türkiye’de yaşanan olaylar…

 

 

 Ana Sayfalar

BELGENET 

ARŞİV

BELGELER

DOSYALAR

KİM KİMDİR

.İlgili Sayfalar

AİHS ANA SAYFA

1. PROTOKOL

4. PROTOKOL

6. PROTOKOL

7. PROTOKOL

13. PROTOKOL

 

 

 

AVRUPA İNSAN HAKLARI SÖZLEŞMESİ

 

11. Protokol ile yeniden düzenlenen metin

 

 

 

20 Mart 1950’de Roma’da imzalanan Sözleşme, 3 Eylül 1952’de yürürlüğe girdi. Türkiye, Sözleşmeyi 18 Mayıs 1954’de onayladı. (R.G. 19 Mart 1954-8662)

 


Sözleşme metni, 21 Eylül 1970’de yürürlüğe giren 3 no’lu Protokol’un 20 Aralık 1971’de yürürlüğe giren 5 no’lu Protokol’un ve 1 Ocak 1990’da yürürlüğe giren 8 no’lu Protokol’un düzenlemelerine uygun olarak değiştirilmişti ve ayrıca, yürürlüğe girdiği 21 Eylül 1970’ten bu yana 5. maddesinin 3. fıkrasına uygun olarak Sözleşme’nin bir parçası olan 2 no’lu Protokol’un metnini içermekteydi. Protokolların getirdiği bütün bu değişikliklerin veya eklemelerin yerini, yürürlüğe girdiği tarih olan 1 Kasım 1998’den itibaren 11 no’lu Protokol aldı. Bu tarihten itibaren, 1 Ekim 1994’te yürürlüğe giren 9 no’lu  Protokol yürürlükten kaldırıldı.
 

 

İnsan Hakları ve Temel Özgürlüklerinin Korunmasına
İlişkin Sözleşme
(Avrupa İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi)

11. Protokol ile değiştirilen ve yeniden düzenlenen
sözleşme metni
(yürürlüğe giriş tarihi 1 Kasım 1998)

İNSAN HAKLARININ VE TEMEL ÖZGÜRLÜKLERİNİN
KORUNMASINA İLİŞKİN SÖZLEŞME
Roma, 4.XI.1950

 

Aşağıda imzası bulunan Avrupa Konseyi üyesi hükümetler,

Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu tarafından 10 Aralık 1948’de ilan edilen İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirisi’ni,

Bu Bildiri’nin, metninde açıklanan hakların her yerde ve etkin olarak tanınmasını ve uygulanmasını sağlamayı hedef aldığını,

Avrupa Konseyi’nin amacının, üyeleri arasında daha sıkı bir birlik kurmak olduğunu ve insan hakları ile temel özgürlüklerinin korunması ve geliştirilmesinin bu amaca ulaşma yollarından birini oluşturduğunu göz önüne alarak,

Dünyada barış ve adaletin asıl temelini oluşturan ve sağlanıp korunabilmesi, her şeyden önce, bir yandan da insan hakları konusunda ortak bir anlayış ve ortaklığa saygı esasına bağlı olan bu temel özgürlüklere derin inançlarını bir daha tekrarlayarak,

Aynı inancı taşıyan ve siyasal gelenekler, idealler, özgürlüklere saygı ve hukukun üstünlüğü konularında ortak bir mirası paylaşan Avrupa devletlerinin hükümetleri sıfatıyla, Evrensel Bildiri’de yer alan bazı hakların ortak güvenceye bağlanmasını sağlama yolunda ilk adımları atmayı kararlaştırarak;

Aşağıdaki hususlarda anlaşmışlardır:
 
 

Madde 1
İnsan Haklarına saygı yükümlülüğü

Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflar, kendi yetki alanları içinde bulunan herkese bu Sözleşme’nin birinci bölümünde açıklanan hak ve özgürlükleri tanırlar.
 

 

BÖLÜM I
Haklar ve Özgürlükler

Madde 2
Yaşama hakkı

1. Herkesin yaşam hakkı yasanın koruması altındadır. Yasanın ölüm cezası ile cezalandırdığı bir suçtan dolayı hakkında mahkemece hükmedilen bu cezanın yerine getirilmesi dışında hiç kimse kasten öldürülemez.
2. Öldürme, aşağıdaki durumlardan birinde kuvvete başvurmanın kesin zorunluluk haline gelmesi sonucunda meydana gelmişse, bu maddenin ihlali suretiyle yapılmış sayılmaz:
    a) Bir kimsenin yasadışı şiddete karşı korunması için;
    b) Usulüne uygun olarak yakalamak için veya usulüne uygun olarak tutuklu bulunan bir kişinin kaçmasını önlemek için;
    c) Ayaklanma veya isyanın, yasaya uygun olarak bastırılması için.
 

 

Madde 3
İşkence yasağı

Hiç kimse işkenceye, insanlık dışı ya da onur kırıcı ceza veya işlemlere tabi tutulamaz.
 

 

Madde 4
Kölelik ve zorla çalıştırma yasağı

1. Hiç kimse köle ve kul halinde tutulamaz.
2. Hiç kimse zorla çalıştırılamaz ve zorunlu çalışmaya tabi tutulamaz.
3. Aşağıdaki haller bu maddede sözü geçen “zorla çalıştırma veya zorunlu çalışma”dan sayılmazlar:
    a) Bu Sözleşme’nin 5. maddesinde öngörülen koşullar altında tutuklu bulunan kimseden tutukluluğu veya şartlı salıverilmesi süresince olağan olarak yapılması istenen çalışma;
    b) Askeri nitelikte bir hizmet veya inançları gereğince askerlik görevini yapmaktan kaçınan kimselerin durumunu meşru sayan ülkelerde bu inanca sahip kimselere zorunlu askerlik yerine gördürülecek başka bir hizmet;
    c) Toplumun hayat veya refahını tehdit eden kriz ve afet hallerinde istenecek her hizmet;
    d) Normal yurttaşlık yükümlülükleri kapsamına giren her türlü çalışma veya hizmet.
 

 

Madde 5
Özgürlük ve güvenlik hakkı

1. Herkesin kişi özgürlüğüne ve güvenliğine hakkı vardır. Aşağıda belirtilen haller ve yasada belirlenen yollar dışında hiç kimse özgürlüğünden yoksun bırakılamaz.
    a) Kişinin yetkili mahkeme tarafından mahkum edilmesi üzerine usulüne uygun olarak hapsedilmesi;
    b) Bir mahkeme tarafından, yasaya uygun olarak, verilen bir karara riayetsizlikten dolayı veya yasanın koyduğu bir yükümlülüğün yerine getirilmesini sağlamak için usulüne uygun olarak yakalanması veya tutulu durumda bulundurulması;
    c) Bir suç işlediği hakkında geçerli şüphe bulunan veya suç işlemesine ya da suçu işledikten sonra kaçmasına engel olmak zorunluluğu inancını doğuran makul nedenlerin bulunması dolayısıyla, bir kimsenin yetkili merci önüne çıkarılmak üzere yakalanması ve tutulu durumda bulundurulması;
    d) Bir küçüğün gözetim altında eğitimi için usulüne uygun olarak verilmiş bir karar gereği tutulu durumda bulundurulması veya kendisinin yetkili merci önüne çıkarılması için usulüne uygun olarak tutulu durumda bulundurulması;
    e) Bulaşıcı hastalık yayabilecek bir kimsenin, bir akıl hastasının, bir alkoliğin, uyuşturucu madde bağımlısı bir kişinin veya bir serserinin usulüne uygun olarak tutulu durumda bulundurulması;
    f) Bir kişinin usulüne aykırı surette ülkeye girmekten alı konmasını veya kendisi hakkında sınır dışı etme ya da geriverme işleminin yürütülmekte olması nedeniyle usulüne uygun olarak yakalanması veya tutulu durumda bulundurulması;
2. Yakalanan her kişiye, yakalama nedenleri ve kendisine yöneltilen her türlü suçlama en kısa zamanda ve anladığı bir dille bildirilir.
3. Bu maddenin 1.c fıkrasında öngörülen koşullara uyarınca yakalanan veya tutulu durumda bulunan herkes hemen bir yargıç veya adli görev yapmaya yasayla yetkili kılınmış diğer bir görevli önüne çıkarılır; kendisinin makul bir süre içinde yargılanmaya veya adli kovuşturma sırasında serbest bırakılmaya hakkı vardır. Salıverilme, ilgilinin duruşmada hazır bulunmasını sağlayacak bir teminata bağlanabilir.
4. Yakalama veya tutuklu durumda bulunma nedeniyle özgürlüğünden yoksun kılınan herkes, özgürlük kısıtlamasının yasaya uygunluğu hakkında kısa bir süre içinde karar vermesi ve yasaya aykırı görülmesi halinde kendisini serbest bırakması için bir mahkemeye başvurma hakkına sahiptir.
5. Bu madde hükümlerine aykırı olarak yapılmış bir yakalama veya tutulu kalma işleminin mağduru olan herkesin tazminat istemeye hakkı vardır.
 

 

Madde 6
Adil yargılanma hakkı

1. Herkes, gerek medeni hak ve yükümlülükleriyle ilgili nizalar, gerek cezai alanda kendisine yöneltilen suçlamalar konusunda karar verecek olan, yasayla kurulmuş bağımsız ve tarafsız bir mahkeme tarafından davasının makul bir süre içinde, hakkaniyete uygun ve açık olarak görülmesini istemek hakkına sahiptir. Hüküm açık oturumda verilir; ancak, demokratik bir toplumda genel ahlak, kamu düzeni ve ulusal güvenlik yararına, küçüklerin korunması veya davaya taraf olanların özel hayatlarının gizliliği gerektirdiğinde, veya davanın açık oturumda görülmesinin adaletin selametine zarar verebileceği bazı özel durumlarda, mahkemenin zorunlu göreceği ölçüde, duruşmalar dava süresince tamamen veya kısmen basına ve dinleyicilere kapalı olarak sürdürülebilir.
2. Bir suç ile itham edilen herkes, suçluluğu yasal olarak sabit oluncaya kadar suçsuz sayılır.
3. Her sanık en azından aşağıdaki haklara sahiptir:
    a) Kendisine yöneltilen suçlamanın niteliği ve nedeninden en kısa zamanda, anladığı bir dille ve ayrıntılı olarak haberdar edilmek;
    b) Savunmasını hazırlamak için gerekli zamana ve kolaylıklara sahip olmak;
    c) Kendi kendini savunmak veya kendi seçeceği bir savunmacının yardımından yararlanmak ve eğer savunmacı tutmak için mali olanaklardan yoksun bulunuyor ve adaletin selameti gerektiriyorsa, mahkemece görevlendirilecek bir avukatın para ödemeksizin yardımından yararlanabilmek;
    d) İddia tanıklarını sorguya çekmek veya çektirmek, savunma tanıklarının da iddia tanıklarıyla aynı koşullar altında çağırılmasının ve dinlenmesinin sağlanmasını istemek;
    e) Duruşmada kullanılan dili anlama dışı veya konuşma dışı takdirde bir tercümanın yardımından para ödemeksizin yararlanmak.
 

 

Madde 7
Cezaların yasallığı

1. Hiç kimse, işlendiği zaman ulusal ve uluslararası hukuka göre bir suç sayılmayan bir fiil veya ihmalden dolayı mahkum edilemez. Yine hiç kimseye, suçun işlendiği sırada uygulanabilecek olan cezadan daha ağır bir ceza verilemez.
2. Bu madde, işlendiği zaman uygar uluslar tarafından tanınan genel hukuk ilkelerine göre suç sayılan bir fiil veya ihmal ile suçlanan bir kimsenin yargılanmasına ve cezalandırılmasına engel değildir.
 

 

Madde 8
Özel hayatın ve aile hayatının korunması

1. Herkes özel ve aile hayatına, konutuna ve haberleşmesine saygı gösterilmesi hakkına sahiptir.
2. Bu hakkın kullanılmasına bir kamu otoritesinin müdahalesi, ancak ulusal güvenlik, kamu emniyeti, ülkenin ekonomik refahı, dirlik ve düzenin korunması, suç işlenmesinin önlenmesi, sağlığın veya ahlakın veya başkalarının hak ve özgürlüklerinin korunması için, demokratik bir toplumda, zorunlu olan ölçüde ve yasayla öngörülmüş olmak koşuluyla söz konusu olabilir.
 

 

Madde 9
Düşünce, vicdan ve din özgürlüğü

1. Herkes düşünce, vicdan ve din özgürlüğüne sahiptir. Bu hak, din veya inanç değiştirme özgürlüğü ile tek başına veya topluca, açıkça veya özel tarzda ibadet, öğretim, uygulama ve ayin yapmak suretiyle dinini veya inancını açıklama özgürlüğünü de içerir.
2. Din veya inancını açıklama özgürlüğü, ancak kamu güvenliğinin, kamu düzenin, genel sağlığın veya ahlakın, ya da başkalarının hak ve özgürlüklerinin korunması için demokratik bir toplumda zorunlu tedbirlerle ve yasayla sınırlanabilir.
 

 

Madde 10
İfade özgürlüğü

1. Herkes görüşlerini açıklama ve anlatım özgürlüğüne sahiptir. Bu hak, kanaat özgürlüğü ile kamu otoritelerinin müdahalesi ve ülke sınırları söz konusu olmaksızın haber veya fikir almak ve vermek özgürlüğünü de içerir. Bu madde, devletlerin radyo, televizyon ve sinema işletmelerini bir izin rejimine bağlı tutmalarına engel değildir.
2. Kullanılması görev ve sorumluluk yükleyen bu özgürlükler, demokratik bir toplumda, zorunlu tedbirler niteliğinde olarak, ulusal güvenliğin, toprak bütünlüğünün veya kamu emniyetinin korunması, kamu düzeninin sağlanması ve suç işlenmesinin önlenmesi, sağlığın veya ahlakın, başkalarının şöhret ve haklarının korunması, veya yargı gücünün otorite ve tarafsızlığının sağlanması için yasayla öngörülen bazı biçim koşullarına, sınırlamalara ve yaptırımlara bağlanabilir.
 

 

Madde 11
Dernek kurma ve toplantı özgürlüğü

1. Herkes asayişi bozmayan toplantılar yapmak, demek kurmak, ayrıca çıkarlarını korumak için başkalarıyla birlikte sendikalar kurmak ve sendikalara katılmak haklarına sahiptir.
2. Bu hakların kullanılması, demokratik bir toplumda, zorunlu tedbirler niteliğinde olarak, ulusal güvenliğin, kamu emniyetinin korunması, kamu düzeninin sağlanması ve suç işlenmesinin önlenmesi, sağlığın veya ahlakın veya başkalarının hak ve özgürlüklerinin korunması amaçlarıyla ve ancak yasayla sınırlanabilir. Bu madde, bu hakların kullanılmasında silahlı kuvvetler, kolluk mensupları veya devletin idare mekanizmasında görevli olanlar hakkında meşru sınırlamalar konmasına engel değildir.
 

 

Madde 12
Evlenme hakkı

Evlenme çağına gelen erkek ve kadın, bu hakkın kullanılmasını düzenleyen ulusal yasalar uyarınca evlenmek ve aile kurmak hakkına sahiptir.
 

 

Madde 13
Etkili başvuru hakkı

Bu Sözleşme’de tanınmış olan hak ve özgürlükleri ihlal edilen herkes, ihlal fiili resmi görev yapan kimseler tarafından bu sıfatlarına dayanılarak yapılmış da olsa, ulusal bir makama etkili bir başvuru yapabilme hakkına sahiptir.
 

 

Madde 14
Ayırımcılık yasağı

Bu Sözleşmede tanınan hak ve özgürlüklerden yararlanma, cinsiyet, ırk, renk, dil, din, siyasal veya diğer kanaatler, ulusal veya sosyal köken, ulusal bir azınlığa mensupluk, servet, doğum veya herhangi başka bir durum bakımından hiçbir ayırımcılık yapılmadan sağlanır.
 

 

Madde 15
Olağanüstü hallerde askıya alma

1. Savaş veya ulusun varlığını tehdit eden başka bir genel tehlike halinde her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, ancak durumun gerektirdiği ölçüde ve uluslararası hukuktan doğan başka yükümlülüklere ters düşmemek koşuluyla bu Sözleşmede öngörülen yükümlülüklere aykırı tedbirler alabilir.
2. Yukarıdaki hüküm, meşru savaş fiilleri sonucunda meydana gelen ölüm hali dışında, 2. madde ile 3. ve 4. maddeler (fıkra 1) ve 7. maddeyi hiçbir suretle ihlale mezun kılmaz.
3. Bu maddeye göre aykırı tedbirler alma hakkını kullanan her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, alınan tedbirler ve bunları gerektiren nedenler hakkında Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’ne tam bilgi verir. Bu Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, sözü geçen tedbirlerin yürürlükten kalktığı tarihi de Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’ne bildirir.
 

 

Madde 16
Yabancıların siyasal etkinliklerinin kısıtlanması

10, 11 ve 14. maddelerin hiçbir hükmü, Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafların yabancıların siyasal etkinliklerini sınırlamalarına engel sayılmaz.
 

 

Madde 17
Hakların kötüye kullanımının yasaklanması

Bu Sözleşme hükümlerinden hiçbiri, bir devlete, topluluğa veya kişiye, Sözleşme’de tanınan hak ve özgürlüklerin yok edilmesine veya burada öngörüldüğünden daha geniş ölçüde sınırlamalara uğratılmasına yönelik bir etkinliğe girişme ya da eylemde bulunma hakkını sağlar biçimde yorumlanamaz.
 

 

Madde 18
Hakların kısıtlanmasının sınırları

Bu Sözleşmenin hükümleri gereğince, sözü edilen hak ve özgürlüklere getirilen sınırlamalar ancak öngörülen amaçlar için uygulanabilir.
 

 

BÖLÜM II

Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi

Madde 19
Mahkeme’nin kuruluşu

Bu Sözleşme ve protokollarına, Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflarca kabul edilen yükümlülüklere uyulmasını sağlamak için; aşağıda “Mahkeme” olarak anılacak bir Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi kurulur. Mahkeme devamlı görev yapar.
 

 

Madde 20
Yargıç sayısı

Mahkeme, Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflar sayısına eşit sayıda yargıçtan oluşur.
 

 

Madde 21
Görev için aranan koşullar

1. Yargıçlar üstün ahlaki vasıflara ve yüksek bir hukuki göreve atanmak için gerekli niteliklere sahip veya ehliyetleriyle tanınmış hukukçu olmalıdırlar.
2. Yargıçlar Mahkemeye kendi adlarına katılırlar.
3. Görev süreleri içerisinde, yargıçlar bağımsızlıkları, tarafsızlıkları ve daimi görevin gerekleri ile bağdaşmayan herhangi bir görev üstlenemezler; bu fıkranın uygulanmasından doğan sorunlar Mahkeme tarafından karara bağlanır.
 

 

Madde 22
Yargıçların seçimi

1. Yargıçlar, her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf için, o Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf tarafından gösterilen ve üç aday içeren bir liste üzerinden Parlamenterler Meclisi tarafından oy çokluğu ile seçilirler.
2. Yeni Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafların bu Sözleşme’ye katılmaları halinde Mahkeme’yi tamamlamak ve boşalan üyelikleri doldurmak için aynı usul izlenir.
 

 

Madde 23
Görev süreleri

1. Yargıçlar altı yıl için seçilirler. Tekrar seçilmeleri mümkündür. Bununla beraber ilk seçilen yargıçlardan yarısının görev süresi üç yıl sonunda sona erecektir.
2. İlk üç yıllık sürenin sonunda görevleri sona erecek olan üyeler, ilk seçimlerin yapılmasından hemen sonra, Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri tarafından kura çekmek suretiyle saptanır.
3. Yargıçların imkan ölçüsünde yarısının her üç yılda bir yenilenmesini sağlamak için, Parlamenterler Meclisi bir sonraki seçime geçmeden önce seçilecek yargıçlardan bir veya birkaçının görev süresinin veya sürelerinin üç yıldan az veya dokuz yıldan çok olmamak şartı ile, altı yıl dışında bir süre olmasına karar verebilir.
4. Birden fazla üyenin görev süresinin söz konusu olduğu durumlarda ve Parlamenterler Meclisi’nin yukarıdaki fıkrayı uygulaması halinde, görev sürelerinin üyelere dağılımı, Genel Sekreter’in, seçimden hemen sonra yapacağı kura sonucu belirlenir.
5. Görev süresi bitmemiş bir yargıcın yerine seçilen yargıç, selefinin görev süresini tamamlar.
6. Yargıçların görev süreleri 70 yaşında sona erer.
7. Yargıçlar, yerlerine başkası seçilinceye kadar görev yaparlar. Yerlerine başkası seçildikten sonra da kendilerine havale edilmiş olan davalara bakmaya devam ederler.
 

 

Madde 24
Görevden alınma

Bir yargıç ancak, artık gerekli koşulları taşıma dışına ilişkin diğer yargıçların üçte iki çoğunluk ile alacakları kararla görevden alınabilir.
 

 

Madde 25
Yazı İşleri ve hukukçular

Mahkeme’de, görev ve kuruluğu Mahkeme içtüzüğünde belirlenen bir Yazı İşleri bulunur. Mahkeme’ye yazı işlerinde görevli hukukçular yardım eder.
 

 

Madde 26
Mahkeme’nin genel kurul halinde toplanması

Genel Kurul halinde toplanan Mahkeme,
    a) Üç yıllık bir süre için Başkanını ve bir veya iki Başkan Yardımcısını seçer, bunların tekrar seçilmeleri mümkündür;
    b) belirli süreler için Daireler kurar;
    c) Mahkeme, Dairelerinin başkanlarını seçer, bunların tekrar seçilmeleri mümkündür;
    d) Mahkeme içtüzüğünü kabul eder;
    e) Yazı işleri Müdürü ve bir veya birden fazla Müdür Yardımcısı seçer.
 

 

Madde 27
Komite, Daireler ve Büyük Daire

1. Mahkeme, önüne gelen başvuruları incelemek üzere üç yargıçlı Komiteler, yedi yargıçlı Daireler ve onyedi yargıçlı bir Büyük Daire şeklinde toplanır. Mahkemenin Daireleri belirli bir süre için Komiteleri oluşturur.
2. Başvuruya konu olan Taraf  Devlet adına seçilmiş yargıç Daire ve Büyük Dairede vazifeten yer alır; bu yargıcın yokluğunda veya katılması mümkün olmayan durumlarda, anılan Devletin belirleyeceği bir kişi yargıç sıfatıyla Daire ve Büyük Dairede yer alır.
3. Büyük Daire ayrıca Mahkeme Başkanı, Başkan Yardımcıları, Daire Başkanları ve Mahkeme içtüzüğüne göre seçilecek diğer yargıçlardan oluşur. 43. madde uyarınca Büyük Daireye sevk edilen başvuruların incelenmesi sırasında, Daire Başkanı ve başvuruda konu edilen Devletin yargıcı dışında, bu kararı veren Daire yargıçları Büyük Dairede yer alamazlar.
 

 

Madde 28
Komitelerin kabul edilemezlik kararları

Bir Komite, 34. madde uyarınca yapılan kişisel başvurunun, daha fazla incelemeyi gerektirmediği hallerde, oybirliği ile kabul edilemezliğine veya kayıttan düşürülmesine karar verebilir. Bu karar kesindir.
 

 

Madde 29
Dairelerin kabul edilebilirlik ve esasa ilişkin kararları

1. 28. madde çerçevesinde karar verilmediği takdirde, bir Daire, 34. madde uyarınca yapılan kişisel başvuruların kabul edilebilirliği ve esası hakkında karar verir.
2. Bir Daire, 33. madde uyarınca yapılan devlet başvurularının kabul edilebilirliği ve esası hakkında karar verir.
3. Mahkeme’nin istisnai hallerde, aksine kararları hariç, kabul edilebilirlik konusundaki kararları ayrı olarak alınır.
 

 

Madde 30
Yargılanmanın Büyük Daireye gönderilmesi

Daire önünde görülen dava, işbu Sözleşmenin ve protokollarının yorumu konusunda ciddi sorunlar doğuruyorsa ya da sorunun çözümü Mahkeme tarafından önceden verilmiş bir karar ile çelişkili olacak ise, Daire, hüküm vermediği süre içerisinde, taraflar itiraz etmedikçe, yargı yetkisinden Büyük Daire lehine vazgeçebilir.
 

 

Madde 31
Büyük Dairenin yetkileri

Büyük Daire,
    1. Daireler tarafından 30. madde uyarınca kendisine gönderilen veya 43.  madde uyarınca önüne gelen, 33. veya 34. maddeler uyarınca yapılan başvuruları ve,
    2. 47. maddede öngörülen görüş bildirme taleplerini inceler.
 

 

Madde 32
Mahkeme’nin yargı yetkisi

1. Mahkeme’nin yargı yetkisi, 33., 34. ve 37. maddeler uyarınca kendisine intikal eden, işbu Sözleşmenin ve protokollarının yorumu ve uygulanmasına ilişkin tüm konuları kapsar.
2. Mahkeme’nin yargı yetkisinin olup olma dışı hakkında ihtilaf durumunda, karar Mahkemeye aittir.
 

 

Madde 33
Devlet başvuruları

Her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf işbu Sözleşme ve protokolları hükümlerine vaki ve kendisinin diğer Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafa isnat edilebileceğine kanaat getirdiği herhangi bir ihlalden dolayı Mahkeme’ye başvurabilir.
 

 

Madde 34
Kişisel başvurular

İşbu Sözleşme ve Protokollarında tanınan hakların Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflardan biri tarafından ihlalinden zarar gördüğü iddiasında bulunan her gerçek kişi, hükümet dışı her kuruluş veya kişi grupları Mahkeme’ye başvurabilir. Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflar bu hakkın etkin bir şekilde kullanılmasına hiçbir suretle engel olmamayı taahhüt ederler.
 

 

Madde 35
Kabul edilebilirlik koşulları

1. Uluslararası Hukukun genel olarak kabul edilen prensiplerine göre, ancak iç hukuk yollarının tüketilmesinden sonra ve kesin karardan itibaren altı aylık süre içinde Mahkeme’ye başvurulabilir.
2. Mahkeme, 34. madde uyarınca sunulan herhangi bir kişisel başvuruyu aşağıdaki hallerde kabul etmez:
    a) Başvuru imzasız ise veya;
    b) Başvuru Mahkeme tarafından daha önce incelenmiş veya uluslararası diğer bir soruşturma veya çözüm merciine sunulmuş başka bir başvurunun konusuyla esas itibariyle aynı ise ve yeni olaylar içermiyorsa.
3. Mahkeme, 34. madde uyarınca sunulan herhangi bir kişisel başvuruyu işbu Sözleşme ve Protokolları hükümleri dışında kalmış, açıkça dayanaktan yoksun veya başvuru hakkının suistimali mahiyetinde telakki ettiği takdirde, kabul edilemez bulur.
4. Mahkeme işbu maddeye göre kabul edilemez bulduğu her başvuruyu reddeder. Yargılamanın her aşamasında bu karar verilebilir.
 

 

Madde 36
Üçüncü  tarafın müdahalesi

1. Daire ve Büyük Daire önündeki tüm davalarda, vatandaşlarından birinin başvuran taraf olması halinde, Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafın yazılı görüş sunma ve duruşmalarda bulunma hakkı vardır.
2. Mahkeme Başkanı, adaletin doğru sağlanabilmesi amacıyla, yargılamada taraf olmayan herhangi bir Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafı yazılı görüş sunma veya duruşmalarda taraf olmaya davet edebilir.
 

 

Madde 37
Başvurunun kayıttan düşmesi

1. Yargılamanın herhangi bir aşamasında, Mahkeme, aşağıdaki sonuçlara varılması halinde başvurunun kayıttan düşürülmesine karar verebilir.
    a) Başvuru sahibi başvurusunu takip etme niyetinde değilse; veya;
    b) Sorun çözümlenmişse veya;
    c) Başka herhangi bir nedenden ötürü, başvurunun incelenmesine devam edilmesi hususunda artık haklı bir gerekçe görmezse.
    Ancak işbu Sözleşme ve Protokollarında tanımlanan insan haklarına riayet gerektiriyorsa, Mahkeme başvurunun incelenmesine devam eder.
2. Mahkeme koşulların haklı kıldığı kanısına varırsa, bir başvurunun eski haline döndürülmesini kararlaştırabilir.
 

 

Madde 38
Davanın incelenmesi ve dostane çözüm süreci

1. Mahkeme, kendisine gelen başvuruyu kabul edilebilir bulduğu takdirde,
    a) Olayları saptamak amacıyla, tarafların temsilcileriyle birlikte başvuruyu incelemeye devam eder ve gerekirse, ilgili Devletlerin, etkinliği için gerekli tüm kolaylıkları sağlayacakları bir soruşturma yapacaktır;
    b) İşbu Sözleşme ve Protokollarında tanımlanan şekliyle İnsan Haklarına saygı esasından hareketle, davanın dostane bir çözüm ile sonuçlandırılması için ilgili taraflara hizmet sunmaya hazır olacaktır.
2. “1 .b” hükümlerine göre yürütülen süreç gizlidir.
 

 

Madde 39
Dostane çözüme varılması

Dostane çözüme varılırsa, Mahkeme olaylarla ve varılan çözümle sı-nırlı kısa açıklamayı içeren bir karar vererek başvuruyu kayıttan düşürür.
 

 

Madde 40
Duruşmaların kamuya açık olması  ve belgelere ulaşabilme

1. Mahkeme istisnai durumlarda aksini kararlaştırmadıkça, duruşmalar kamuya açıktır.
2. Mahkeme Başkanı aksine karar vermedikçe, Yazı İşleri Müdürüne emanet edilen belgeler kamuya açıktır.
 

 

Madde 41
Hakkaniyete uygun tatmin

Mahkeme işbu Sözleşme ve protokollarının ihlal edildiğine karar verirse ve ilgili Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafın iç hukuku bu ihlali ancak kısmen telafi edebiliyorsa, Mahkeme, gerektiği takdirde, hakkaniyete uygun bir surette, zarar gören tarafın tatminine hükmeder.
 

 

Madde 42
Dairelerin kararları

Dairelerin kararları, 44. maddenin 2. fıkrası hükümleri uyarınca kesinleşir.
 

 

Madde 43
Büyük Daireye gönderme

1. Bir Daire kararının verildiği tarihten itibaren üç ay içerisinde, dava taraflarından her biri, istisnai durumlarda, davanın Büyük Daireye gönderilmesini isteyebilir.
2. Büyük Daire bünyesinde beş yargıçtan oluşan bir kurul, dava Sözleşme ve protokollarının yorumuna ya da uygulanmasına ilişkin ciddi bir sorun doğuruyorsa ya da genel nitelikli ciddi bir konu teşkil ediyorsa, istemi kabul eder.
3. Kurul istemi kabul ederse, Büyük Daire bir hüküm ile davayı sonuçlandırır.
 

 

Madde 44
Kesin hükümler

1. Büyük Dairenin kararı kesindir.
2. Bir Dairenin kararı aşağıdaki durumlarda kesinleşir.
    a) Taraflar davanın Büyük Daireye gönderilmesini istemediklerini beyan ederlerse veya;
    b) Karardan üç ay içerisinde davanın Büyük Daireye gönderilmesi istenmezse veya;
    c) Kurul 43. maddede öngörülen istemi reddederse.
3. Kesin karar yayınlanır.
 

 

Madde 45
Hükümlerin ve kararların  gerekçeli olması

1. Hükümler, başvuruların kabul edilebilirliğine veya kabul edilemezliğine ilişkin kararlar gerekçelidir.
2. Hüküm, tamamen veya kısmen yargıçların oybirliğini içermediği takdirde, her yargıç kendi ayrı görüşünü belirtmek hakkına sahiptir.
 

 

Madde 46
Kararların bağlayıcılığı ve uygulanması

1. Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflar, taraf oldukları davalarda Mahkemenin kesinleşmiş kararlarına uymayı taahhüt ederler.
2. Mahkemenin kesinleşmiş kararı, kararın uygulanmasını denetleyecek olan Bakanlar Komitesine gönderilir.
 

 

Madde 47
Görüş bildirme

1. Mahkeme, Bakanlar Komitesi’nin istemi üzerine, Sözleşme ve protokollarının yorumlanması ile ilgili hukuki meseleler üzerinde görüş bildirebilir.
2. Ancak, bu görüşler, ne Sözleşmenin 1. bölümünde ve protokollarında belirlenen hak ve özgürlüklerin içeriği veya kapsamı ile ilgili sorunlara, ne de Mahkeme veya Bakanlar Komitesi’nin Sözleşmede öngörülen bir başvuru sonucunda karara bağlamak durumunda kalabileceği diğer sorunlara ilişkin bulunabilir.
3. Bakanlar Komitesinin Mahkeme’den görüş bildirme talep etmek kararı Komiteye katılmak    hakkına sahip temsilcilerin çoğunluğuyla alınır.
 

 

Madde 48
Mahkeme’nin görüş bildirme yetkisi

Bakanlar Komitesi tarafından yapılan talebin, 47. maddede belirtilen görüş bildirme yetkisine girip girmediğini Mahkeme kararlaştırır.
 

 

Madde 49
Bildirilen görüşün gerekçeli olması

1. Mahkemenin verdiği görüş gerekçelidir.
2. Mütalaa, tamamen veya kısmen yargıçların oybirliğini içermediği takdirde, her yargıç kendi ayrı görüşünü belirtmek hakkına sahiptir.
3. Mahkemenin mütalaası Bakanlar Komitesi’ne bildirilir.
 

 

Madde 50
Mahkeme’nin masrafları

Mahkemenin masrafları, Avrupa Konseyi tarafından karşılanır.
 

 

Madde 51
Yargıçların ayrıcalık ve dokunulmazlıkları

Yargıçlar vazifelerinin ifasında Avrupa Konseyi Statüsünün 40. maddesinde ve bu madde uyarınca akdedilen anlaşmalarda öngörülen ayrıcalık ve dokunulmazlıklardan yararlanırlar.
 

 

BÖLÜM III

Çeşitli Hükümler

Madde 52
Genel Sekreter tarafından yapılan incelemeler

Her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’nin istemesi üzerine, bu Sözleşme’nin bütün hükümlerinin fiilen uygulanmasının kendi iç hukukunca nasıl sağlandığı konusunda açıklamalarda bulunur.
 

 

Madde 53
Tanınan insan haklarının korunması

Bu Sözleşme hükümlerinden hiçbiri, herhangi bir Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafın yasalarına ve onun taraf olduğu başka bir Sözleşmeye göre tanınabilecek insan haklarını ve temel özgürlüklerini sınırlayamaz, ya da onlara aykırı düşecek şekilde yorumlanamaz.
 

 

Madde 54
Bakanlar Komitesi’nin yetkileri

Bu Sözleşme’nin hiçbir hükmü, Avrupa Konseyi Statüsü’nün Bakanlar Komitesi’ne tanıdığı yetkileri olumsuz yönde etkilemez.
 

 

Madde 55
Diğer çözüm yollarının dışlanması

Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflar, bu Sözleşme’nin yorum veya uygulamasından doğan bir anlaşmazlığı, başvuru yoluyla bu Sözleşmede öngörülenlerin dışında bir çözüme bağlamak hususunda aralarında mevcut anlaşma, sözleşme veya bildirilerden, özel uzlaşma halleri dışında yararlanmaktan karşılıklı olarak vazgeçmeyi kabul ederler.
 

 

Madde 56
Ülkesel uygulama

1.  Her devlet, onaylama sırasında veya daha sonra herhangi bir zamanda, Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’ne göndereceği bir bildirimle bu Sözleşme’nin, uluslararası ilişkilerinden sorumlu bulunduğu bütün ülkelere veya bunlardan herhangi birine, işbu maddenin 4. Fıkrası saklı kalmak kaydıyla, uygulanacağını beyan edebilir.
2. Sözleşme, bildirimde belirtilen ülke veya ülkelerde, Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’nin bu bildirimi aldığı tarihten itibaren otuz gün sonra uygulamaya konur.
3. Bu Sözleşmenin hükümleri sözü geçen ülkelerde yerel şartlar dikkate alınarak uygulanır.
4. Bu maddenin birinci fıkrası uyarınca bildirimde bulunmuş olan her devlet, sonradan herhangi bir zamanda, bildiriminde belirtmiş olduğu ülke veya ülkelerdeki gerçek kişilerin, hükümet dışı kuruluşların veya kişi gruplarının başvuruları konusunda bu Sözleşıne’nin 34. maddesine uygun olarak Mahkeme’nin yetkisini kabul ettiğini beyan edebilir.
 

 

Madde 57
Çekinceler

1. Bu Sözleşme’nin imzası ve onaylama belgesinin sunulması sırasında her devlet, Sözleşme’nin belirli bir hükmü hakkında, o sırada kendi ülkesinde yürürlükte olan bir yasanın bu hükme uygun olmaması ölçüsünde bir çekince kaydı koyabilir. Bu madde genel nitelikte çekinceler konmasına izin vermez.
2. Bu maddeye uygun olarak konulacak her çekince, sözü edilen yasanın kısa bir açıklamasını içerir.
 

 

Madde 58
Feshi ihbar

1. Bir Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, bu Sözleşme’yi ancak Sözleşme’ye taraf olduğu tarihten itibaren geçecek beş yıllık bir süre sonunda ve Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’ne altı ay önceden haber verilecek bir ihbarla feshedebilir. Genel Sekreter bunu, diğer Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraflara bildirir.
2. Bu fesih işlemi, feshin geçerli sayıldığı tarihten önce işlenmiş ve yükümlülüklerin ihlali niteliğinde sayılabilecek olan bir fiil dolayısıyla, ilgili Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafın bu Sözleşme’den doğan yükümlülüklerinden kurtulması sonucunu doğurmaz.
3. Aynı şartlarla, Avrupa Konseyi üyeliğinden çıkan her Yüksek Sözleşmeci Taraf, bu Sözleşme’ye de taraf olmaktan çıkar.
4. Sözleşme, 56′ ncı madde gereğince uygulanacağı beyan edilmiş olan ülkelerle ilgili olarak, yukarıdaki fıkraların hükümleri uyarınca feshedilebilir.
 

 

Madde 59
imza ve onay

1. Bu Sözleşme, Avrupa Konseyi üyelerinin imzalarına açıktır. Sözleşme onaylanacaktır. Onaylama belgeleri Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri’ne verilecektir.
2. Bu Sözleşme, on onaylama belgesinin verilmesinden sonra yürürlüğe girecektir.
3. Sözleşmeyi daha sonra onaylayacak olan imzacılar için Sözleşme, onaylama belgesinin verilmesinden itibaren yürürlüğe girecektir.
4. Avrupa Konseyi Genel Sekreteri, Sözleşmenin yürürlüğe girdiğini, Sözleşme’yi onaylayan Yüksek Sözleşmeci Tarafların adlarını ve daha sonra gelecek olan onaylama belgelerinin verilişini bütün Avrupa Konseyi üyelerine bildirecektir.

Bu Sözleşme, Avrupa Konseyi arşivlerinde saklanmak ve her iki metin de aynı derecede 
geçerli olmak üzere Fransızca ve İngilizce tek bir nüsha halinde 4 Kasım 1950’de Roma’da düzenlenmiştir. Genel Sekreter bunun tasdikli örneklerini imza eden bütün devletlere gönderecektir.
 

 


KAYNAK: Prof. Dr. Feyyaz GÖLCÜKLÜ – Prof. Dr. A.Şeref GÖZÜBÜYÜK, AVRUPA İNSAN HAKLARI SÖZLEŞMESİ VE UYGULAMASI, Turhan Kitabevi, Ankara, 1998
(20 KASIM 2000)


 

 

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